2. What are the critical differences in the timing and positioning of successful

CASE STUDY 7

Pre-Launch Decisions which
Influence Innovation Success

It
has been extensively documented in management literature that an incredibly
large share of firms’ investments in technological innovation do not generate
substantial financial returns. Three main reasons underlying this phenomenon
can be identified. First, technological innovation creates knowledge and
technological assets that often remain largely unexploited. Various studies
show that between 70 and 90% of corporate technology assets often never get
used in core products or lines of business. Second, the likelihood that an
innovation project reaches completion and that the new product is introduced
into the market is strikingly low. It has been estimated that the probability
of new product commercialisation is about 40% in many industries, with some cases
(e.g., pharmaceutics) where the mortality of innovation projects is much
higher. Finally, a large share of the innovations that ultimately reach the
market do not experience a satisfactory diffusion and their sales are
discontinued. Empirical studies have shown indeed that on average 40–50% of
fully commercialised new products turn out to be commercial failures.

An important managerial question is however left unanswered: which
are the levers a manager can act upon to achieve adoption network acceptance and
early 329330adopters’ acceptance for a high-tech innovation, having a given
functional content and a set of technical specifications, which is introduced
within the scope of a given competitive and product strategy (Table 7.5)?

TABLE 7.5 Commercialization
factors influencing the adoption of innovations

Variable

Description

Timing

· 
– When will the innovation first be launched into the market?

· 
– Will the firm announce the innovation to the press long before
its market launch?

· 
– Will the firm partner with external organizations long before
the official market launch?

Targeting and positioning

· 
– Which market segments will the innovation will be addressed to?

· 
– Which will be the position of the innovation in the eyes of
potential adopters in each of the targeted market segments?

· 
– Will the firm target different segments as long as the
commercialization process progresses?

Inter-firm relationships

· 
– Which external organizations will the firm partner with during
the commercialization of the innovation?

· 
– Which forms of relationships will be most appropriate (e.g.,
licensing agreements, strategic, long-term partnerships) to organize such
relationships?

Product

· 
– Which bundle of
additional adds-on, services and functionalities surrounding the ‘core’
innovation will be included in the basic configuration of the new product?

Distribution

· 
– Which type of
distribution strategy (e.g., push or pull) will be needed to streamline the
market penetration of the innovation?

· 
– Which types of
distribution channels will be chosen to deliver the innovation to market
(e.g., retail or specialised distributors)?

· 
– Which critical
functions (e.g., customer education) will they be required to perform?

Advertising and promotion

· 
– Which message will be
communicated during the pre-announcement and post-launch advertising
campaign?

· 
– Which types of
communication channels will be employed for these advertising and promotion
initiatives (e.g., mass or specialised channels)?

Pricing

· 
– Which pricing strategy (e.g.,
skimming or penetration) will be used for the market introduction of the new
product?

· 
– Which pricing strategy will be
adopted for complementary goods and additional services?

The commercialisation processes of 11 technological innovations,
launched in high-technology markets in the past 30 years, were investigated
using this approach (Table 7.6).

TABLE 7.6 Successful and
unsuccessful innovation examined

Radical innovations

Systemic innovations

Unsuccessful innovations

Apple Newton

IBM PC-Junior

Sony Betamax

3DO Interactive Multiplayer

Sony MiniDisc

Apple Newton

Sony Betamax

Successful innovations

Tom Tom GO

Sony Walkman

RIM BlackBerry

Palm Pilot

Nintendo NES

Apple iPod

Comparing
the commercialization of the successful and unsuccessful systemic innovations
in the sample, a number of decisions were taken along the dimensions.

Inter-Firm Relationships

Our
analysis indicates that obtaining the support from the critical members of
innovation’s adoption network requires chiefly a careful administration of the
inter-firm relationships that are established before and along the
commercialization process.

The
decision to prevent other companies (e.g., competitors and suppliers of
complementary hardware and software) from manufacturing products based on the
innovation’s underlying technology is likely to be a first detrimental decision
for the large-scale adoption of a high-technology innovation. This is due to
the strong network externalities that high-tech markets, because of their tight
interconnectedness, are currently experiencing. Accordingly, letting the actors
of the adoption network manufacture products based on the innovation’s
technology (e.g., through advantageous out-licensing agreements) increases the
availability of complementary products and the chances that a potential adopter
chooses to purchase the innovation. This in turn exponentially enhances the
value of the innovation in the eyes of both subsequent adopters and the other
members of the adoption network, in a self-reinforcing double-loop cycle. The
effects of this commercialization decision are very clear when comparing the cases
of the Palm Pilot (whose OS operating system was released for free to all
manufacturers of adds-on and software applications) with that of Sony Betamax
(with the Japanese firm that accepted to license the underlying technology to
Zenith only more than one year after launch, when the incoming success of the
VHS by JVC was already undisputable).

It also
emerges as a critical approach to win the support of the critical members of
the adoption network to enter into long-term, strategic partnerships with them.
This allows firms to share the risks and the costs they incur when supporting a
systemic innovation (e.g., developing and manufacturing ad hoc, specialised,
complementary devices or pieces of software). This is what Palm did, in 1996,
when commercialising its Pilot: it decided to sign a €20 million agreement with
Circuit City to ensure adequate shelf space and customer education services for
its new product. Similarly Apple, to streamline the acceptance of the iPod and
the associated iTunes Music Store service, was able to convince a number of
record labels (e.g., Sony Music Entertainment, BMG, EMI, Universal and Warner)
to endorse the new service provision model ensuring a 65% compensation for each
song sold through iTunes. In a similar vein, Nintendo invested heavily in order
to obtain the full support for its NES from the most important game developers
(e.g., Taito, Bandai, Capcom). This required the Japanese firm to grant above
the average money compensation for each game sold. Sometimes the innovating
firm instead refuses to establish any partnerships with the members of the
adoption network, or simply sets up arm’s-length, commercial relationships with
them, with the aim of maximising its potential profits from the innovation.
This is evident in the case of 3DO, which failed to establish any forms of
relationship with the developers of software titles and the manufacturers of
consoles for its new Interactive Multiplayer. A similar phenomenon is clear in
the commercialisation of the Betamax, where Sony refused to partner with video
rental channels and film producers (with the exception of Paramount Home Video,
with which a Joint Venture was established).

A
critical member of the adoption network for content-based innovations is the
community of small and highly creative software and application developers. In
order to secure their support, it is especially critical to develop an easy to
use software authoring kit that is made available for free or at a very low
price. This is what Palm did when it released for free the application
development kit for its Pilot. 3DO, on the other hand, decided to sell the
authoring system for the Interactive Multiplayer for several thousand dollars.

Timing

Besides the form of the inter-firms
relationships with the critical members of the adoption network, it seems that
the timing with which they are established is important in determining the
degree of support they ensure to the innovation. The analysis indicates that
sometimes firms deliberately postpone the establishment of strategic
partnerships with the adoption network on the assumption that, once the
innovation has taken off in the market, its critical players will support it of
their own accord. However, it often happens that, after an initial, unexpected
growth of the new product’s sales, the innovation never diffuses in the largest
part of the332333target market. This is
what happened in the commercialisation of the MiniDisc: Sony refused to partner
with consumer electronics outlets (which played a critical role in ensuring a
wide availability of recorded music albums) in the belief that the new format
would diffuse into the mass market and, as a result, force outlets to provide
the required shelf space. This phenomenon is due to the fact that the bulk of a
high-tech consumer innovation’s target market is made of people who resist new
products and experience a high level of uncertainty when evaluating the
opportunity to buy them. Although early adopters might be willing to purchase
the new product whilst it is not backed up by the critical members of the
adoption network (because they are mainly attracted by the technical content
and degree of sophistication of the innovation and are able to more objectively
assess its advantages), this represents an important signal to later adopters
of the value of the innovation, which helps reduce their resistance and
customer uncertainty.

Therefore,
although a high-tech innovation may experience an unexpected sales growth
immediately after launch without support from the critical players of the
adoption network, it is of paramount importance to rapidly secure this support,
through the establishment of long-term, strategic partnership, if large-scale
adoption is to be achieved. All firms whose innovations had experienced a
relevant and rapid diffusion in the bulk of their target market started very
early indeed to work with the adoption network’s critical players. This is
clear in the cases of the Pilot by Palm, the NES by Nintendo and the iPod by
Apple.

It often
happens that firms rush to market their high-tech innovations in an attempt to
establish them as technological standards and to quickly recover their R&D
investments. This sometimes leads to the launch of an incomplete product, with
some functionalities not working perfectly, as a result of the acceleration of
development and testing activities. This seems to have a very negative effect
on the attitude developed by early adopters. Companies sometimes prefer
shortening time to market at the expense of product completeness on the
assumption that the potential technical problems will not affect the purchasing
decision and the satisfaction of the average member of the target market. In
doing so they overlook that the innovation is adopted immediately after launch
by those customer segments that are most sensitive to the new product’s
technical content and sophistication, and whose opinion about the new product
is key in affecting subsequent purchases. This erroneous conduct is clear in
the commercialisation of the IBM PC-Junior and the Apple Newton, while there is
no sign of new product acceleration for the successful radical innovations in
the sample (e.g., Tom Tom GO, Sony Walkman and RIM BlackBerry).

It should be noted that the negative impact
of the launch of an incomplete product is exacerbated by an overblown
pre-announcement campaign, which raises the expectations of early adopters and
leaves them disappointed when a deficient version reaches the market: their
attitudes to the innovation as a whole are thereby negatively affected. This
happened with the Apple’s Newton, which was announced33333418 months before the actual launch and was known as one of
the most-hyped and postponed products for years. Similarly, the PC-Junior was
pre-announced about 12 months before the launch, which fuelled the curiosity,
rumours and enthusiasm that accompanied the new product. Analysts started
referring to the PC-Junior by the nickname ‘Peanut’. Interestingly, IBM itself
contributed to nurturing these expectations by drawing a thick curtain of secrecy
over the new product after having pre-announced it.

Targeting and Positioning

Especially
for content-based innovations, it seems that a firm more easily succeeds in
orchestrating the behaviour of the adoption network’s players and in securing
their support if the positioning of the new product is unambiguous. The
experience of 3DO in the commercialisation of the Interactive Multiplayer is
paradigmatic in this respect. The new, revolutionary console always lacked a
library of software titles that were able to fully exploit its graphic
capabilities. This was partly due to its unclear positioning: the Multiplayer
was sold as a gaming platform with advanced interactive, learning and
educational capabilities, enabled by its CD-Rom support, that caused confusion
in the developers community about the exact applications that were required for
its commercial success. On the other hand, the NES by Nintendo was
unambiguously positioned as a gaming system, and the Palm Pilot as a substitute
for personal paper-based organisers.

The
incapability to understand that an incomplete new product is likely to elicit a
very negative reaction in the first market segments that adopt it is also due
to a lack of pro-active targeting of these early adopters. The firms in the
sample that failed to raise a positive post-purchase attitude of early adopters
had not targeted the innovation at any specific market segments after launch.
This is clear in the cases of Apple’s Newton and IBM’s PC-Junior that were
aimed at a broadly defined market made of mass consumers and families with
children. It was only after the first months of sales that managers realised
the new products were being purchased by people with a very different profile
than the average target customer (namely, executives and companies looking for
sales force automation applications, and managers used to working with a
traditional PC at the office who wanted to bring some work at home). On the
other hand, when commercialising the Walkman, Sony realized that it was going to
be initially purchased by young men fond of sport and outdoor living, and that
the ‘near CD quality’ of sound reproduction associated with advanced
portability of the device was key in affecting their post-purchase attitude.
Similarly, RIM targeted its BlackBerry immediately after launch to top
executives (e.g., Chief Information Officers, Chief Financial Officers) or
sales agents who had a compelling reason to receive e-mail messages in real
time while travelling for work, and ensured that this functionality was working
perfectly from a technical point of view.

Product

The
aforementioned lack of targeting of the innovation’s early adopters is
detrimental also because it often prevents firms from devising a configuration
of the whole product at launch that meets early adopters’ expectations, which
are usually very different from the intended average target customer’s. For
instance, the IBM PC-Junior was not compatible with many of the applications
available for the traditional PC, and the Apple Newton lacked connectivity with
PC and Macintosh at launch. It is noteworthy and seemingly nonsensical that
both IBM and Apple had sponsored these capabilities of the new products during
the pre-announcement campaign, which exacerbates the negative effect of an
inappropriate product configuration at launch over early adopters’
satisfaction. This might be the result of the attempt to anticipate the launch
of the innovation without a clear targeting of the early customers.

On the
other hand, the successful innovations in the sample do not seem to have missed
any critical functionalities to satisfy early adopters’ expectations. How could
this be achieved? The analysis suggests that an effective commercialisation
strategy could need to include a limited number of simple functionalities in
the configuration of the new product at launch, designed to satisfy the
compelling reason to purchase of early adopters. The product configuration is
enriched with additional functionalities as long as the innovation diffuses in
the less innovative segments of the target market. An essential prerequisite
for successfully adopting this approach, which increases the likelihood that
the new product is complete at launch despite a firm’s attempt to rush it to
market, is a careful targeting of the innovation’s early customers. This
approach was for instance adopted by RIM in the commercialisation of the
BlackBerry. In order to improve the chances of satisfying the new product’s
early customers, RIM decided to design and launch a simplified version of the
BlackBerry, called Desktop Redirector, that could work using as a mail server
any PCs or laptops and only featured the revolutionary ‘push’ approach to mail
delivery. Agenda, address book, and synchronisation with PC were added as long
as the BlackBerry diffused in the market. On the other hand, Apple tried to
include as many complex functionalities as possible in the first version of the
Newton (e.g., infrared communication, advanced handwriting recognition, contact
manager, organiser, synchronisation with both PC and Macintosh, traditional and
wireless phone connectivity), some of which were absent or did not function
perfectly at launch, resulting in a very negative attitude from early adopters.

Advertising and Promotion

The role of the pre-announcement campaign
in influencing the post-purchase attitude of early adopters has already been
discussed in this section of the chapter. In particular, it has emerged that an
early pre-announcement of the new product generates335336great expectations in the innovation’s early adopters. If
the new product at launch fails to fulfil these expectations, because it is
incomplete as a result of a rush to market, or because it lacks some
functionalities that are critical for early adopters, the latter turn out to be
highly dissatisfied with the innovation, and their opinion about it freezes any
further diffusion of the new product. Therefore, if a firm chooses to
pre-announce early a high-tech innovation, it must be sure to arrive on the market
with a complete product having the few, critical functionalities that are
necessary to satisfy the compelling reason to buy of early adopters. This is
consistent with literature on New Product Pre-announcements (NPPAs), which
indicates that pre-announcing and then missing introduction dates for new
products is not detrimental per se in terms of customer acceptance. It becomes
problematic only in the case when the new product, once it reaches the market,
fails to fulfil the expectations of early adopters nurtured by the
pre-announcement campaign. This is exactly what happened with the
commercialisation of the Apple Newton and the IBM PC-Junior.

Read Case Study 7 and respond to question 2.

2. What are the critical differences in the timing and positioning of
successful versus unsuccessful innovations?

Your response should be at least one page long and conform to APA Version 6 standards

Cultural Activity Report – The Baltimore Museum of Art

Assignment 3: Cultural Activity Report

As a way of experiencing the Humanities beyond your classroom, computer, and textbook, you are asked to do a certain type of “cultural activity” that fits well with our course and then report on your experience. Your instructor will require you to propose an activity and get instructor approval before you do it and report on it (students should look for any instructions in that respect). Every effort should be made to ensure that this is a hands-on experience (not a virtual one), that this activity fits the HUM 111 class well, and that the activity is of sufficient quality for this university course. The two (2) key types of activities are a museum visit or a performance. Note: This must not be a report on the same activity (and certainly not the same report) as done for another class, like HUM 112. For instance, one might go to the same museum as done for HUM 112, but this HUM 111 report will focus on entirely different works and displays.

1.  Visit a museum or gallery exhibition or attend a theater or musical performance before the end of Week 10. The activity (museum or performance) should have content that fits our course well. Have fun doing this.

2.  Write a two to three (2-3) page report (500-750 words) that describes your experience.

· 

o  Clearly identify the event location, date attended, the attendees, and your initial reaction upon arriving at the event.

o  Provide specific information and a description of at least two (2) pieces (e.g., art, exhibits, music, etc.).

o  Provide a summary of the event and describe your overall reaction after attending the event.

o  Use at least the class text as a reference (additional sources are fine, not necessary unless required by your content). Your report should include connections you make between things observed in your activity and things learned in the course and text.

Visiting a Museum – The Baltimore Museum of Art or another local to Baltimore

·  It makes sense to approach a museum the way a seasoned traveler approaches visiting a city for the first time. Find out what there is available to see. In the museum, find out what sort of exhibitions are currently housed in the museum and start with the exhibits that interest you.

·  If there is a travelling exhibition, it’s always a good idea to see it while you have the chance. Then, if you have time, you can look at other things in the museum.

·  Every effort should be made ahead of time to identify a museum that has items and works one can easily connect to our HUM 111 class and book. Since HUM 111 covers from ancient times to the 1500s AD, it makes more sense to focus on items from that time frame. In general, museums with artistic cultural artifacts and fine arts work better than history museums.

·  Any questions about whether a museum-visit activity fits the course and assignment well enough will be decided by the instructor when the student seeks approval for the activity. Any alternative activity outside the normal ones listed here, such as for those limited by disability or distance, will be determined by the instructor. Generally, we do not expect students to travel over an hour to get to an approved activity.

·  Take notes as you go through the museum and accept any handouts or pamphlets that the museum staff gives you. While you should not quote anything from the printed material when you do your report, the handouts may help to refresh your memory later.

·  The quality of your experience is not measured by the amount of time you spend in the galleries or the number of works of art that you actually see. The most rewarding experiences can come from finding two (2) or three (3) pieces of art or exhibits which intrigue you and then considering those works in leisurely contemplation. Most museums even have benches where you can sit and study a particular piece.

·  If you are having a difficult time deciding which pieces to write about, ask yourself these questions: (1) If the museum you are visiting suddenly caught fire, which two (2) pieces of art or exhibits would you most want to see saved from the fire? (2) Why would you choose those two (2) particular pieces?

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

·  Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. (Note: Students can find APA style materials located in the course shell for reference).

·  Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

·  Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.

·  Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions

·  Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.

·  Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.

Identify 2 ways in which human service practice is different in the mental health setting versus the criminal justice

Your supervisor, Ms. Harris, possesses a bachelor’s of social work (B.S.W.) degree and is working on her master’s degree in social work (M.S.W.) by going to school at night on a part-time basis. Prior to accepting the position at the pretrial diversion program, she worked in a community mental health clinic providing services to low-income families. You have your bachelor’s degree in criminal justice behind you and your internship with the pretrial diversion program is halfway completed. You and Ms. Harris have had some intense discussions about human service practice in general and human service practice in the criminal justice field in particular.

You decide that you will chart the similarities and differences between the two and present a detailed outline to her comparing and contrasting the two. A detailed outline is in the traditional form of an outline; however, the text will contain sentences as opposed to single words or phrases. In your detailed outline, you should cover the following topics:

  • Identify 2 ways in which human service practice is different in the mental health setting versus the criminal justice setting (you may use any venue in the criminal justice setting for comparison, such as prison, jail, juvenile detention, pretrial diversion, parole, probation, etc.).
  • Identify 2 ways in which human service practice is similar in the mental health setting versus the criminal justice setting (you may use any venue in the criminal justice setting for comparison, such as prison, jail, juvenile detention, pretrial diversion, parole, probation, etc.).
  • What role does human service practice play in the pretrial diversion setting specifically?
  • At what point, if any, does human service practice in the mental health setting converge on the pretrial diversion setting?

GLST 290- Elmer Book Review

PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY!

Follow grading Rubric to receive the most points.

CITATIONS FROM THE TEXT ARE REQUIRED.

You will write a 3-page book review of Cross-Cultural Servanthood: Serving the World in Christlike Humility by Duane Elmer. Your paper must include the following elements:

  • One sentence indicating what percentage of the book you read: “I read ____ % of the book I am using for this Book Review.” Please include this statement under your name on the title page.
  • Brief summary of the main elements discussed in the book
  • Analysis of the content using examples that clearly illustrate the significance of the main elements discussed in the book
  • Biblical reflection – Why is the material presented in the book relevant to Christian cross-cultural work?
  • Point of application – How does this material apply to your field of study and what is one element you can incorporate into your field and/or ministry?

Formatting:

  • Current Turabian formatting is required.
  • Citations from the text are required.
  • A title page and bibliography are required in addition to the 3 pages of content.

rt4 disc & paper

Item 1

Mixed methods research designs refer to a set of designs that purposively mix or integrate both qualitative data and quantitative data. As with quantitative research and qualitative research, the choice to use mixed methods research is influenced by the researcher’s philosophical orientation.

This Competency’s readings provided an overview of various types of mixed methods research designs. The selection of the most appropriate mixed design is guided by the study’s purpose and research questions and/or hypotheses. The choice of design links the research questions and/or hypotheses to the data that will be collected achieving alignment among research components.

In this question, you will explore the basics of mixed methods research designs, calling upon your growing understanding of both quantitative and qualitative research. With these thoughts in mind:

  • Submit your response to the question: To what extent is mixed methods research simply taking a quantitative design and a qualitative design and putting them together?
  • Explain the types of research questions best served by mixed methods research.
  • Explain one strength and one limitation of mixed methods research.
  • Identify a potential ethical issue in mixed methods research, and explain how it might influence design decisions.
  • Provide a rationale for or against the utility of mixed methods research in your discipline.

Item 2

For this question, you will submit the annotation of a mixed methods research article on a topic of your interest. An annotation consists of three separate paragraphs that cover three respective components: summary, analysis, and application. These three components convey the relevance and value of the source. As such, an annotation demonstrates your critical thinking about, and authority on, the source topic.

An Annotated Bibliography is a document containing selected sources accompanied by a respective annotation of each source. In preparation for your own future research, an Annotated Bibliography provides a background for understanding a portion of the existing literature on a particular topic. It is also a useful first step in gathering sources in preparation for writing a subsequent literature review as part of a dissertation.

  • Use a library databases to search for a mixed methods research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
  • Before you read the full article and begin your annotation, locate the methodology section in the article to be sure that the article describes a mixed methods study.
  • Annotate one mixed methods research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest.
  • Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA style followed by a 3-paragraph annotation that includes:
    • A summary
    • An analysis
    • An application as illustrated in this example
  • Format your annotation in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-spaced. A separate Reference page is not needed for this assignment.

Analyzing Sample Reports

Instructions:

Review the two sample reports from the NASA (Links to an external site.) and the US Executive Branch (Links to an external site.).

Then, post a reply in which you answer the following questions:

  1. What is the purpose of each report?
  2. What did you see in the report to suggest this purpose?
  3. List at least two audiences of each report. How did you know these were the audiences?
  4. Identify at least three design choices in each report that you feel are effective (think pictures, borders, colors, text size, columns, graphs, etc.) Be SPECIFIC?
  5. How do these design choices meet the needs of the audience? How do they achieve the report’s purpose?
  6. What are the major similarities and differences of the two reports (beyond content – think purpose, audience, design)?
  7. How might you apply what you’ve learned to your project 4 report?

A powerpoint presentation

This will be a powerpoint presentation about the Book watchmen specifically the topic of the presentation is IDENTIFY THE ETHICAL DILEMMAS

– Identify the Ethical Dilemmas faced by the Comedian, Rorschach, Dr. Manhattan, Nite Owl 2 & Laurie (treat them together), and Ozymandias. (Each character must make such decisions in at least two major situations.) What does each character decide for each situation? How does the decision affect others in the story? What is the overall ethical dilemma and what are the characters’ roles in dealing with the dilemma?

A slideshow presentations to provide historical or cultural context for, apply theories to, or explain techniques as applied to Watchmen. Often students struggled with the “live” nature of these presentations.

– Choose one of the topics posted on the Discussion Board (and in the description of the assignment in the Learning Module) for your presentation. The more narrow your topic, the more likely your presentation will be interesting. Be sure your claim reflects this.

– Create a slideshow presentation with a program like Prezi or Powerpoint. You should have at least 15 slides. These slides should a mix of images and text (your required quotes, properly cited).

-Be sure your final slide is a Works Cited in MLA 8.

You will need a minimum of 3 quotes from Watchmen. You will also need at least 6 quotes, a minimum of 2 quotes from each of your 3 scholarly sources—No Google sources allowed for this assignment — you must use the LRC for books and articles.All quotes should appear on presentation slides and must be properly cited according to MLA. Please use proper capitalization, spelling, and punctuation. Please do not use pictures from the movie or other Watchmen graphic stories.


What I will look for when I grade:

Your first slides (2 slides):

Title slide with title of your presentation and names of group members

Thesis Statement/Claim that specifically states what your presentation will prove

about your topic

Content slides 3-19:

required quotes from Watchmen (minimum 3) required quotes from 3 scholarly

articles found through the LRC databases, 2 quotes from each article

Last slide is the WORKS Cited Page


Assess the intelligence capacity and effectiveness of fusion centers.

1) Assess the intelligence capacity and effectiveness of fusion centers.

2) Assess the continuing challenges for law enforcement related to intelligence gathering and use.

3) Discuss emerging intelligence methods in the modern era.

4) Discuss trends in terrorism and terrorist activities and how law enforcement can use their resources to thwart terrorist attacks.

5) Examine intelligence issues related to domestic terrorism and what advancements in technology can assist in the fight against terrorism.

The main focus of this paper is for students to articulate and justify their answers using good scholarly peer-reviewed references to support their arguments. You must reflect on the question and your work must show in-depth analysis using proper English and grammar. Avoid the passive voice and do not use any quotes in your work. Your analysis is what is needed not your ability to copy what a published author has previously stated. Analyze the articles and give your informed opinion based on your peer-review journal articles selected.

Students will be required to use peer-reviewed journal articles as references. Additional sources may be included but must be in addition to the two required scholarly references.

1. Each answer will have at least two (2) peer-reviewed journal articles
2. The in-text citations and references are to follow APA Style 6th edition formatting.
3. All answers are to be a minimum of 500 words, not including the questions and references.
4. Work must be original and any dishonesty will result in the student failing the mid-term exam, and possibly receiving a disciplinary “F” grade for the course.
5. This is not a team project. This is an individual assignment.

Contract Analysis Assignment

The contracts you will be using are in the Contracts Module.

You will be given 2 contracts with questions to be answered for each contract. I am looking for the ability to read and comprehend the contract so the appropriate contract clause can be applied to the questions connected with each contract. In order to answer the contract fact scenario, you will also need to be able to identify the legal concept that is applicable to the situation described. This is an analysis so please treat it as such. Your personal opinion is not appropriate.

There are correct answers for each question. If a student discusses a different legal theory for answering the questions, partial points will be given. In cases of complete or partial answers, text references are mandatory to support the remedy proposed by the student. A text reference that has no bearing on the remedy or legal arguments will be counted as “no text”. For example, if any contract has an issue of risk of loss, referencing the text on contract formation will not meet the requirement.

Please remember to reference the applicable parts of the contract that you are using to answer each question.

Each question is worth 15 points. Within each question, a student will be given 3 points for the text reference, 3 points for the contract reference, with 9 points for the analysis.

The remaining 3 points will be given as an a spelling/grammar score. Following are the prompts.

Residential House Lease

The following question is based on the Residential House Lease found in the Contracts Module. Please reference the Lease by clause number as you answer the questions.

  • Essay (2 complete paragraphs with text references to support your answers)

Maria, the landlord, refuses to fix a small leak in the roof that was there prior to the current tenant. Juan, the current tenant, has just discovered the leak after a heavy rain. The consequence is that black mold has been forming in the attic for quite some time. Juan still has significant time remaining on his lease. Juan has notified Maria in writing of the mold and leak issue but has received no response. He is concerned about the premises becoming unsafe to live in. It has been 14 days since he emailed her his notification. What are all of Juan’s options if Maria declines to do the repairs? Please discuss all remedies Juan may seek. Please remember to reference the contract and text to support your analysis.

UCC Sales Contract

The following question is based on the Sales Contract found in the Contracts Module. Please reference the Sales Contract by clause number as you answer the questions. Remember, this is a contract under the UCC.

  • Essay (2 complete paragraphs minimum per essay with text and contract references to support your answers)

You, the buying merchant, contend that you received non-conforming goods as a result of an ambiguity in the contract. You ordered goods thinking you would get a particular product. You wanted Razor scooters. That was the original oral communication when you first contacted the selling merchant. You both talked about and agreed on Razor scooters. Thereafter, in phone conversations, you and the seller just used the phrase “scooters”. The seller prepared a written contract. The contract was signed by both parties. The selling merchant then shipped scooters that are in perfect condition but they are not Razor scooters. The selling merchant believes the goods are conforming and wants paid. Upon receipt and inspection of the goods, what are all your merchant options under the contract and at law?

Why are text references important? Contract language does not exist in a vacuum. It is written based on the law. It is critical, therefore, to cite to the text and the contract to support your analysis.

Tattoo As An Artform

In this Discussion, you will select a specific image of a tattoo, then post a 500-750 word analysis explaining whether you think it is an example of Fine Art or Folk Art.

Explain whether the tattoo you chose is an example of fine art or folk art. You must select only one response…not both…and decide whether tattoos are fine art or whether they are folk art.

Answer must be well-written, well-supported, grammatically correct, and free of spelling and punctuation errors.

This is a college level assignment!

Tattoo Requirements:

Upload image of tattoo, with answer.

NO nudity or anything too graphic, and please post images that are easy to discern. High resolution images are preferred.